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1) My Drainage water flow is continuous. Is it a complaint?

If the inlet pressure is too high and the tank is full, and even the RO unit is not working, then drainage water flow will continue. The reason is that once the tank is full and the faucet is closed, the water entering to the membrane, by gravity will pass through the drainage only. Hence there is no other way for the water to go out.

2) Without water if the motor works what will happen?

If the motor is running without water, the pressure meter will show the continuous movement of the arrow mark and along with a tik..tik..sound. It is an indication that the water is not entering the system. You need to switch off the current supply at such point.

3) I need to keep this machine outside (in shade). Is it ok? Will it damage machine?

Yes, the membrane can work in the temperature of 4 – 45 degrees. When the temperature starts fluctuating the membrane′s performance will be affected. The water output may increase with increase salt concentration. Slowly membrane will be destroyed.

4) Is our machine suitable for filtering sea water?

For filtering sea water, large scale industrial R.O. filtration plants are set up. This requires membrane with high salt rejection rates and high pressure withstanding capacity.

5) If system is not used for long time is there any chances of bacterial growth?

When the system is not used for long time, there may be traces of water or moisture in the filters and tank. Even with small gaps or little passage of air it can become a good place for microbial growth and contamination. In such case usage of UV sterilizer is recommended and the water needs to be flushed 2 to 3 times before consumption.

6) It is said that ministry water is bacteria free. How do you them claim the usage of membrane for removing bacteria?

Ministry water is sprayed with chlorine to prevent the bacterial growth. This is done to save people from spread of large scale epidemic. But these pipe lines and the water tanks above the building are very long and very old. They are never cleaned. Imaging how often you used to clean your water tank to get clean water. Even if one bacteria survives it can reproduce quickly. To be on safer side R.O. water filter has basic pre– filters that remove rust, dust and unwanted chlorine (for human consumption). Membrane does the main function of removing bacteria.

7) How exactly can we demonstrate operational differences between manual and auto system?

In both manual and auto systems there is auto shut off valve which cuts off the feed water supply to the membrane once the tank is filled. In case of an auto system the membrane is given a small back pressure to force the water in the reverse direction through the membrane and flush out the impurities to the drain. This is not possible in a manual system.

8) What is Electrolysis

Electrolysis is the process of oxidation. An electrolyser consists of two electrodes, cathode (+) and anode (– ). When this electrolyser is immersed in a solution or glass of water and electricity is passed through the electrodes to the solution, the dissolved substances precipitate out. Positively charged ions move towards anode and negatively charged ions move towards cathode.

9) Why there is surf type small bubbles in Coolpex filtered water? OR Why Coolpex filtered water looks like Milky?

This happens due to the nano filtration process used in Coolpex. The water after passing through 3 preliminary stages is forced through a very very fine (the pore size is 0.0001 micron(or 1/10,000,000th of a millimeter) membrane. When water is forced to pass through such fine pores, nano bubbles are formed. This is the reason the filtered water looks milky if it is collected from the tap immediately after filtration. These very fine air bubbles disappears in a very short time if kept idle.

  • 1) What is meant by Reverse Osmosis (RO)?

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane– technology filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective," this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.

    2) What is the RO application in Residential Water Purifiers?

    • Reverse Osmosis utilizes the unique properties of a semi– permeable membrane to allow fluid to pass while restricting the flow of dissolved ionic material. With the pressure applied to impure water on the side of such membrane materials, pure water will pass through, leaving most of the impurities behind.
    • The rejection of dissolved ionic material is a function of both molecular weight and ionic charge. For example, we can expect a nominal 90% rejection of sodium chloride, which means that the product water passing through the membrane will have a concentration of salt approximately 1/10th of the feed water. The rejection of calcium carbonate (hardness) will be near 95%, while most metallic salts will be rejected at a rate of approx. 98% to 99%.
    • The rejection of non– ionic or organic material is primarily by mechanical filtration. Most substances with a molecular weight of over 100 will be completely rejected by an intact reverse osmosis membrane. Low molecular weight organics, such as formaldehyde or phenol, can pass freely through an R.O. membrane, as can most dissolved gases. Oil, suspended solids and particulate matter are mechanically filtered, as are bacteria, pyrogen and large organic molecules.
    • To carry the rejected material away from the membrane surface, the feed side of the R.O. membrane is continually flushed with an excess flow, usually two to five times the product flow. This avoids clogging of the membrane surface and reduces the tendency toward scale formation.

    3) What are the different types of Filtration and how RO filtration is different?

    Depending upon the filter types, membrane pore sizes can vary from 0.1 to 5,000 nanometres (nm).

      "Particle filtration" removes particles of 1,000 nm or larger.
      "Micro filtration" removes particles of 50 nm or larger.
      "Ultra filtration" removes particles of roughly 3 nm or larger.
      "Nano filtration" removes particles of 1 nm or larger.
      "Reverse osmosis" is in the final category of membrane filtration, "hyper filtration" this removes particles even of size 0.1 nm.

    4) Will RO processed pure water remove essential minerals of Water?

    This is actually the biggest myth in the water industry. To understand the issue clearly, first we need to examine "what minerals" are in our tap water. If we were to send a sample of water to a testing laboratory, we would get back a report that includes calcium, magnesium, and sodium along with a list of other minerals and contaminants. While some of these mineral are safe and benign, there are also many toxic ones on this list including fluoride, arsenic, chromium and radium just to name a few. Unfortunately there are no filtration systems available that can differentiate between good and bad minerals. Basic carbon filter systems will leave in all the minerals, including the highly toxic and radioactive ones. On the other hand, RO systems will remove 90– 99% of these undesirable contaminants.

    The truth is the majority of healthy minerals our bodies need come from the food we eat and not from drinking water. The main concern with water is actually over toxicity, not mineral content. Whether water contains 1 or 100ppm (parts per million) calcium isn′t really important, but the difference between 1 and 100ppm arsenic is of grave importance

    5) How effective is Reverse Osmosis compared to other filtration methods?

    • RO is the most convenient and effective method of water filtration. It filters water by squeezing water through a semi– permeable membrane, which is rated at 0.0001 micron (equals to 0.00000004 inch!). This is the technology used to make bottled water; it is also the only technology capable of desalinating sea water, making it into drinking water.
    • Non– RO water filters typically use a single activated carbon cartridge to treat water. They are much less effective, and the pore size on these filter media are much bigger, generally 0.5 – 10 micron. They can filter out coarse particles, sediments and elements only up to their micron rating. Anything finer and most dissolved substances cannot be filtered out. As a result, water is far less clean and safe compared to reverse osmosis filtration.

    6) Can we use RO for aquariums?

    Yes, RO water is generally 95– 98% pure and the environment for the aquarium livestock would be enhanced. Ordinary tap water can often contain excessive chlorine, chloramines, copper, nitrogen, phosphates, silicates, or many other chemicals detrimental to the sensitive organisms in a reef environment. Tap water Contaminants such as nitrogen compounds and phosphates can lead to excessive and unwanted algae growth on the aquarium, which can be reduced by using RO water.

    7) After using R.O. water for more than 10 years and then changing to other water will cause any health problem?

    No, by using R.O. water for more than 10 years you have only helped your body to perform better. Your kidney′s efficiency and ability to remove toxin will be very good.

  • 1)What is the membrane leaf made up of?

    FILMTEC elements from DuPont chemicals feature a spiral wound design and based on the FT30 thin film composite polyamide membrane, which is still being the industry standard for RO performance.

      Membrane consists of three layers namely:
      • Polyamide barrier layer
      • Micro porous Poly Sulfone inter layer.
      • High strength Polyester support.

    2) What is Polyamide?

    A polymer produced by the reaction of the amino group (NH2) from one molecule with the carboxylic acid group (CO2H) from another molecule. The resulting structure is similar to that of a protein.Eg.Silk is a naturally occurring polyamide and nylon is a synthetic polyamide.

    3) What are the different types of Membranes and how do they differ?

    • TFC membrane   –  Thin Film Composite membrane
    • CTA membrane  –   Cellulose Triacetate
    • The TFC membranes have high rejection rates rejection rates (they will filter out more contaminants) than a CTA membrane, however, they are more susceptible to degradation by chlorine. This is one of the reasons why it is important that a reverse osmosis system include activated carbon pre– filters compared to CTA membrane.

    4) What will be the percentage of rejection (contaminants rejection) by the membrane?

    The quality of purified water produced by reverse osmosis is roughly a constant percentage of the tap water. For example: when the tap water is entering at 50 PPM, the purified water may be between 2 to 5 PPM (90– 95% rejection of dissolved minerals). When the tap water is entering at 500 PPM, the product water would be from 25– 50 PPM (90– 95% rejection of dissolved minerals).

    5) What is the effect of temperature on membrane performance?

    As water temperature increases, water flux increases almost linearly, due primarily to the higher diffusion rate of water through the membrane. Increased feed water temperature also results in lower salt rejection or higher salt passage. This is due to a higher diffusion rate for salt through the membrane. There is a 2% increase in water production rate per one degree rise in temperature. However, the increase in feed water temperature may accelerate the rate of membrane degradation.

    6) If we put more pressure on membrane will its working be affected?

    Most standard membranes are capable of withstanding 400 PSI (unless otherwise specified on the unit itself) of "forward" pressure, i.e., high pressure side across the membrane surface to the product water side. However, the product water side cannot tolerate "back" pressure, i.e., in the direction from the product water side to the supply water side. The maximum backpressure should not be more than5 to 6 PSI. In order to prevent damage to the membranes from this source, a check valve is placed, in pressure tank applications, on the product water line, so that when the system shuts down, backpressure is effectively sealed off. This safety device should never be bypassed.

    7) What is the maximum possible temperature for membrane to work?

    Maximum operating temperature for the membrane is 45 degrees.

    8) How much water is used to flush and clean the membrane?

    Our reverse osmosis systems use premium TFC DuPont Filmtec membranes which offer long lasting performance and reliability. These membranes use a process known as "cross flow" which allows the cartridge to continually clean itself during water filtration. It is this innovative feature that allows our membranes to routinely last from 2– 3 years between replacements while still providing 90– 99% rejection ratings to deliver exceptional value and performance. The water used to wash and treat the membrane is known as RO rinse water and is normally directed towards the drain. However many RO owners do reuse this water in their gardens, swimming pools, aquariums or for many other general household purposes. The rinse to product water ratio will vary depending on water conditions and the type of system, but normally falls between a 3:1 (under counter) to 2:1 (countertop) ratio for open tank situations. For a small household, that is the equivalent of an extra 2– 4 toilet flushes a day of used water.

  • TDS and Electrical Conductivity FAQs
  • 1) What is meant by TDS?

    TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) refer to any minerals, salt, metals dissolved in water. This includes anything present in the water other than the pure water (H2O) and suspended solids. In general, TDS concentration is the sum of the cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions) in the water. It′s measured in terms of PPM (Parts per Million).

    2) TDS varies for the system in the same area for two neighboring flats. Why?

    It completely depends upon the TDS of the feed water. If TDS of the water used by both the neighboring flats is different then the TDS of the water obtained by R.O. filter will also show a difference in TDS reading.

    3) Why TDS varies even for the same system when checked at different dates?

    TDS of the output water depends on the TDS of feed water of that particular area. On different dates the water supplied to that area may have varying TDS and hence may give different readings for the same unit on different dates.

    4) How does TDS meter measure TDS of a given solution?

    TDS is measured on a quantity scale, either in mg/L or, more commonly, in parts per million (ppm). Simply put, if the TDS level is 335 ppm, this means that out of one– million parts of H2O, 335 of those parts are something else. A TDS meter does not initially measure TDS. TDS meters, also known as TDS testers or indicators, are digital or analog meters that measure the electrical conductivity of water. Based on that conductivity, the meters estimate what the true TDS level might be. TDS is essentially anything dissolved in the water other than the pure H2O. Because hydrogen and oxygen conduct virtually no electricity, and most other elements do, the conductivity measurement is a fair indicator of the overall water purity.

    5) What is meant by electrical Conductivity?

    Electric conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct an electric current and it is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity. The unit of measurement commonly used is the Siemens/cm (S/cm), in millionths (10– 6) of units, that is micro Siemens/cm (µS/cm), or in thousandths (10– 3), i.e. milli– Siemens (mS/cm)

      Conductivity of Water

      1. Pure Water        0.055 µS/cm
      2. Distilled Water      0.5 µS/cm
      3. Mountain Water     1.0 µS/cm
      4. Domestic Water     500 a 800 µS/cm
      5. Max. for potable water   10055 µS/cm
      6. Sea Water            52 mS/cm

    In aqueous solutions, conductivity is directly proportional to the concentration of dissolved solids. Therefore the higher the concentrations of solids, the greater the conductivity. The relation between conductivity and dissolved solids is expressed, depending on the application, with a good approximation, by:

      English Degrees   /  American Degrees

      1.4 µS/cm = 1 ppm   or   2 µS/cm = 1 ppm (parts per million of CaCO3)
    Where 1 ppm = 1 mg/L is the measuring unit for dissolved solids. In addition to conductivity meters, there are TDS instruments that automatically convert the conductivity value into ppm, thus providing a direct reading of the dissolved solids concentration.

    6) What is Hard Water?

    Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful to one′s health.

    7) Is water hardness directly proportional to TDS?

    The TDS is the total dissolved solids and is literally a measure of everything that is dissolved in the water. A portion of the minerals that are dissolved in water are Calcium and Magnesium (the ions that make up water hardness). So, generally the higher the TDS the higher the total hardness but that is not always true. Many times a high sodium concentration in the water will yield a high TDS but the water will have a low hardness concentration because sodium does not add hardness to the water.

  • 1) What is UV light?

    Ultraviolet(UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X– rays, in the range of 10nm to 400nm and energies from 3ev to 124ev.It is so named because the spectrum consists of Electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the colour violet.

    2) How UV disinfection works?

    When bacteria, viruses and other micro organisms are exposed to UV light of a particular wavelength(254nm) then their reproductive capabilities are destroyed and hence inactivated and no longer pose a threat to human health. Water enters the unit through the inlet port of the UV light generator cell. The water flows through the generator cell and swirls around a low pressure mercury vapor lamp, which emits powerful UV light energy. The Vital genetic components of the bacteria and viruses absorb the light and ultimately destroying the same.The treated water then exits through the outlet port of the UV generator cell and are now ready for consumption.

    3) How much water passes through the UV sterilizer per minute?

    Approximately 1.2 litres per minute. More production will depend on the water quality.

    4) What is the lifespan of UV lamp?

    Germicidal UV lamps have an effective life span of approx. 8,000– 12,000 hours continuos use. It can vary 15– 40%.The lamp will continue to emit a blue light after the usage of 12,000 hours which indicates their deterioration in germicidal output.

  • 1) What material is the tank made up of? What is inside tank?

    The tank material is either made up of stainless with inner glass coating or made up of plastic. Supported by fully enclosed polypropylene and butyl reservoirs, these storage tanks provide airtight protection against leaks and contamination. The stainless steel connectors ensure leach– free integrity while post– cured diaphragms eliminate the possibility of odors from the tank. Individually pressure– tested for safety, all our tanks are NSF certified and CE approved for materials quality, safety, and durability making them suitable for use anywhere in the world.

    2) Why Storage tank is necessary for the system?

    Tank is highly recommended because Water goes through a reverse osmosis membrane very slowly and people don′t have the patience to wait a long time to get a cup of water. For this reason the residential RO units need a water storage tank to store the purified water. The RO tanks can delivery stable and constant water flow when the faucet is opened.

    3) Explain the working principle of tank.

    A pressure booster works in conjunction with an expansion tank. An expansion tank is a sealed tank with a bladder inside where one side is pressurized to provide a cushion of air. As air is compressible, the pump pushes water into the system; the water enters the other side of the bladder compressing the air and the system pressure increases. When the faucet is opened the pressure at the bottom of the diaphragm is released and water flows out of the tank to the 5th stage to the faucet. The pump automatically switches for high and low pressure settings.

    4) How do the inlet and outlet mechanism work in the tank?

    Inlet and outlet mechanism work alternatively in R.O. tank. When the faucet is not opened, inlet mechanism is in operation; the tank is getting filled with water. The water level is maintained in tank by air pressure which in turn is controlled by shut off valves. This valve shuts off the feed water to tank. In case of an auto system, once the tank is filled, the membrane is back– flushed and waste water is drained out. When the faucet is opened the inlet mechanism stops. The pressure under the diaphragm pushes the water above and water is let out to the 5th post carbon filter and then to the faucet.

    5) What will happen by the usage of plastic tank?

    The materials used to manufacture poly (plastic) water tanks are approved for contact with potable water but NSF does not test the storage system. Factors such as poly tanks propensity to facilitate algae and bacterial growth, affects of sunlight and temperature on leaching of phthalates and other possible carcinogens, remain unknown. To avoid bad odours from diaphragm, all of our diaphragms are post– cured before assembly, to eliminate the possibility of odors from the RO Water Storage Tank. Our tanks are CE approved under the PED (pressure equipment directive).

  • 1) What is the function of Booster Pump?

    The booster pump supplies the pressure needed to push water through the membrane. When the pump pushes water into the tank, water enters the other side of the bladder compressing the air and the system pressure increases. The pump automatically switches according to the pressure of water.

    2) What is the voltage required for your Booster Pump?

    The voltage of the Booster Pump is 24VDC by using a DC adaptor. Input Voltage is 240V Output Voltage is 24VDC

    3) What is the minimum inlet pressure needed for the system?

    50 psi

    4) What is the average pressure provided by the booster pump at membrane?

    60 to 100 psi

    5) Is the outlet pressure always constant?

    If the input flow is constant, then the outlet pressure also will be constant.

    6) My inlet pressure is too high. Will the system work?

    Yes, But if the inlet pressure is too high, then it may cause damage to the system.

  • 1)What is the production capacity of the water purifiers?

      A) 75GPD (Gallons Per Day) membrane can produce 75 gallons of purified water in 24hrs.It means that it can produce 3.125 gallon per hour, which is equivalent to 12.5ltrs per hour.
      B) 100GPD membrane can produce 100 gallons of purified water in 24hrs.It means that it can produce 4.166 gallons per hour, which is equivalent to 16.664ltrs/hr.

    2)What is the maximum filtration capacity of prefilters?

    The Pre filters are

      A) 5 Micron Polypropylene Sediment Filter– Life span is 3 months to 6 months
      B) Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filter– Life span is 6months to 1 year
      C) Chlorine Taste and Odour (CTO) filter– Life span is 6 months to one year

    The filtration capacity and life span of the pre filters depends upon the input water quality and pressure. If the available water pressure is low, then the production capacity also becomes low. Also if the input water is more contaminated with hard particles like mud and dust, then it will adversely affect the production capacity which in turn will result in the short lifespan of the filters.

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